Here’s a review of the session on forest management, water and wildlife, featuring Lynn Broaddus of the Johnson Foundation’s environmental programs and Christopher Smith of Ducks Unlimited Canada.
Focusing on the value of water for a variety of uses, Broaddus highlighted the need to bring a range of groups together when planning for water uses. Their effort brought together environmental NGOs, industry organizations, family farmers and others to ultimately produce a report called “Charting New Waters.”
She highlighted two principles that particularly applied to water and forestry.
Account for the full cost of water. Broaddus noted that the maze of federal subsides, costs for dams and other costs that were paid long ago have made it difficult to manage water and properly use it. Subsidies make it difficult to bring new conservation technologies to market because the subsidized price of water is so low. It also prevents water from being used in the most effective ways.
Create methods for freshwater ecosystem markets. Arguing that “the most important forest output may be water,” Broaddus argued that the value of clean water, mitigating flows and other costs and benefits from water management should be calculated. One negative impact she noted was from chemicals used to fight fires on the quality of water. She noted that Denver pays foresters to follow certain practices because it is cheaper than filtering the water. She also highlighted the work of The Freshwater Trust in Oregon.
The notion of valuing “ecosystem services” has been around for a while and hasn’t made much progress because there are a number of challenges. For example, one way to prevent the impact of firefighting chemicals reaching forest streams is to improve the health of forests by thinning and harvesting. Would advocates of valuing ecosystem services support this approach or would they say this would do more damage? It is virtually impossible to say and the answer often has less to do with economics than personal values. Ultimately the approach can hide the same value-laden arguments in economics talk. This is not to say it isn’t a useful discussion or worthy of consideration, but it hasn’t provided many clear answers.
The discussion of valuing water properly, however, is a critical area that needs to further be addressed and the Charting New Waters report sounds like an interesting addition to that discussion.
Smith highlighted the value of wetlands in the Western Boreal region of Canada. To emphasize that value, he noted that 50 percent of the land in Western Canada is wetland of a variety of types, from bogs to marshes. He noted that the” implications of resource development” in these areas is “relatively unknown.” Roads, however, are of particular concern for a variety of reasons.
Using a grant from SFI, Ducks Unlimited is now working with Weyerhaeuser, Louisiana Pacific and others on the “SFI Road Best management Practices Project.” The project is designed to identify areas of high, medium and low risk of impact on wetlands and test those classifications and see how they can be applied. They are now testing the results on quality of water and other issues and hope to have results next year.
The thing that stands out to me about this presentation (which was fairly technical) is the value that certification systems can provide in sharing best practices and new science. As new information is developed, certification systems can help spread the word about these approaches, giving certified foresters and incentive to use new science. The role of certification systems as a conduit for new science is under appreciated.